Marine Fuel Oil Boiler Maker
Boiler function on the ship
- Boiler Function
Boiler or steam boiler is a machine that functions to convert water into steam. The process of changing water into steam occurs by heating water that is in the pipes by utilizing heat from burning fuel. Combustion is carried out continuously in the combustion chamber by flowing fuel and air from outside.
The steam produced by the boiler is superheat steam with high pressure and temperature. The amount of steam production depends on the surface area of the heat transfer, the flow rate, and the heat of combustion given. Boilers whose construction consists of pipes filled with water are called water tube boilers.
Boiler ship is part of the equipment used to help the work of the main driving machine . In carrying out its work, ship boilers need some other equipment. As the definition, a ship’s boiler is the equipment used to convert liquids, that is water, into steam, the ship’s boiler needs material to be converted into steam, which is water (commonly called: feed water). To convert a liquid into a steam boiler requires heat, the required heat is obtained from the fuel. The liquid flow to become steam is depicted in the following figure:
drawing of a working boiler boiler scheme
drawing of a working boiler boiler scheme
If the pump is used to move fuel from the tank material baka r toward the ultimate driving machine, how the ship’s boiler? Ship boilers also play an important role in the operation of the enginemain. Fuel that is moved by the pump in general is a fuel that has a high viscosity, this viscosity affects the viscosity of the fuel. so that if the viscosity value is not lowered then the fuel will thicken and is difficult to pump and difficult to enter the main engine driving fuel nozzle. To reduce this thickness, the fuel must be heated first. The process of heating the fuel must not use fire, because the fuel will easily burn. The process of heating the fuel uses a stream of hot steam that is flowed through pipes installed in the fuel tank or in the path of the fuel flow to the main engine. The hot steam that is supplied is obtained from the ship’s boiler
The boiler system consists of : feed water system, steam stem system and fuel system. The feed water system provides water to the boiler automatically according to steam needs. Various taps are provided for maintenance and repair purposes. The steam system collects and controls steam production in the boiler. Steam is flowed through the piping stem to the user’s point. In the whole system, steam pressure is regulated using a faucet and monitored by a pressure monitor. Fuel systems are all equipment used to provide fuel to produce the heat needed. The equipment required in the fuel system depends on the type of fuel used in the system.
The water that is supplied to a boiler to be turned into steam is called feed water. Two sources of feed water are: (1) Condensate or condensed steam returning from the process and (2) Makeup water (treated raw water) that must be fed from outside the boiler room and process plant. To get a higher boiler efficiency, an economizer is used to preheat feed water using waste heat in the exhaust gas.
- Types of Boilers Based on Pipe Type
– Fire Tube Boiler
Fire pipe boiler types have the following characteristics: produce low steam capacity and pressure. How it works: the ignition process occurs in the pipe, then the heat generated is delivered directly into a boiler filled with water. The size and construction of the boiler affect the capacity and pressure generated by the boiler.
– Water Tube
The type of water pipe boiler has the following characteristics: high steam capacity and pressure. How it works: the ignition process occurs outside the pipe, then the heat generated heats the pipe filled with water and before the water is conditioned first through an economizer, then the steam produced is collected first in a steam-drum. Until the pressure and temperature match, through the secondary superheater and the new primary superheater, steam is released into the main distribution pipe. In a water pipe, running water must be conditioned to minerals or other contents that are dissolved in the water. This is the main factor that must be considered for this type.
Boiler advantages and disadvantages based on pipe type.
|No.||Boiler Type||The advantage||Loss|
|1||Fire Tube||The installation process is easy and fast, does not require special settings||Steam operating pressure is limited to 18 bar low pressure|
|The initial investment of this boiler is cheap||Steam capacity is relatively small (13.5 TPH) when compared to a water tube|
|The shape is more compact and portable||The kiln is difficult to reach for cleaning, repair and condition checking.|
|Does not require a large area for 1 HP boiler||The efficiency value is low, because a lot of heat energy is wasted directly into the stack|
|2||Water Tube||Large steam capacity up to 450 TPH||The construction process is more detailed|
|Operating pressure reaches 100 bar||Initial investment is relatively more expensive|
|The efficiency value is relatively higher than the fire tube boiler||The handling of water entering the boiler needs to be maintained, because it is more sensitive for this system, it needs supporting components for this|
|The furnace is easy to reach for inspection, cleaning and repair.||Being able to produce greater steam capacity and pressure, the construction requires a large area|
- Principles of Boiler Work
The working principle of the boiler (Saturated steam) can be seen in the picture below.
- Feed water after going through a pretreatment process in the softener or air condensate is pumped into the economizer.
- In economizer preheating occurs which utilizes heat discharged in chimney. Preheating is intended to increase the efficiency of the boiler.
- Furthermore, feed water enters the kettle but previously given chemichal according to the specified dose.
- After that the heated feed water in the boiler changes phase to steam and is ready to be distributed.
- After the steam turns phase back into water (air condensate), it can be pumped back into the boiler again. Make up water is only used to replace the loss of water due to the blowdown process.
Feed water system
Feed water is water that is supplied to a boiler to be converted into steam. Whereas the feed water system is an automatic water supply system for boilers in accordance with steam requirements. There are two sources of feed water, namely:
Condensate: steam that has turned phase into water (condenses)
Makeup water: raw water that has been treated
To improve the efficiency of the boiler feed water before being supplied to the boiler is heated first using waste heat from chimney.
Steam system is the process of controlling the production of steam in a boiler, such as: capacity, pressure, etc. Furthermore steam is distributed to users through pipelines.
Fuel system is all equipment or equipment used to provide boiler fuel. The equipment used depends on the type of fuel the boiler uses.
Various forms of boilers have evolved following technological advances and evaluations of previous boiler products that are affected by boiler exhaust gases that affect the environment and steams products such as what will be produced. The following classification of boilers that have been developed:
- Based on the pipe type:
Fire pipe boiler types have the following characteristics: produce low steam capacity and pressure.
How it works: the ignition process occurs in the pipe, then the heat generated is delivered directly into a boiler filled with water. The size and construction of the boiler affect the capacity and pressure generated by the boiler.
The type of water pipe boiler has the following characteristics: high steam capacity and pressure.
How it works: the ignition process occurs outside the pipe, then the heat generated heats the pipe filled with water and before the water is conditioned first through an economizer, then the steam produced is collected first in a steam-drum. Until the pressure and temperature match, through the secondary superheater and the new primary superheater, steam is released into the main distribution pipe. In a water pipe, running water must be conditioned to minerals or other contents that are dissolved in the water. This is the main factor that must be considered for this type.
- Based on the fuel used:
Solid fuel boiler types have characteristics: the price of combustion raw materials is relatively cheaper compared to boilers that use liquid and electric fuels. The efficiency value of this type is better when compared to electric type boilers.
How it works: heating that occurs due to combustion between mixing of solid fuels (coal, baggase, rejected products, municipal waste, wood) with oxygen and heat sources.
The type of liquid fuel boiler has the following characteristics: the price of the most expensive combustion raw material compared to all types. The efficiency value of this type is better when compared with solid fuel and electricity boilers.
How it works: heating that occurs due to combustion between the mixing of liquid fuels (diesel, IDO, residues, kerosene) with oxygen and heat sources.
The type of gas fuel boiler has the following characteristics: the price of the combustion raw material is the lowest compared to all types of boilers. The efficiency value of this type is better when compared to all types of boilers based on fuel.
How it works: combustion that occurs due to mixing of fuel gas (LNG) with oxygen and heat sources.
This type of electric boiler has the characteristics: the price of heating raw materials is relatively cheaper compared to boilers that use liquid fuel. The efficiency value of this type is lowest when compared with all types of boilers based on fuel.
How it works: heating that occurs due to a source of electricity that supplies a source of heat.
- Based on the use of the boiler:
This type of power boiler has characteristics: its main use is as a steam generator for electricity generation, and the remaining steam is used to run industrial processes.
How it works: the steam produced by this boiler uses a type of water tube boiler, the resulting steam has a large pressure and capacity, so it is able to turn steam turbines and generate electricity from generators.
Industrial boiler types have characteristics: their main use is as a producer of steam or hot water for running industrial processes and as an additional heater.
How it works: steam produced by this boiler can use a type of water tube or fire tube boiler, the resulting steam has a large capacity and moderate pressure.
This type of commercial boiler has characteristics: its main use is as a producer of steam or hot water as a heater and in addition to running commercial operations.
How it works: steam produced by this boiler can use a type of water tube or fire tube boiler, the resulting steam has a large capacity and low pressure.
This type of residential boiler has characteristics: its main use is as a producer of steam or low pressure hot water that is used for housing.
How it works: the steam produced by this boiler uses the type of fire tube boiler, the resulting steam has a low pressure and capacity
Heat Recovery Boiler
The type of heat recovery boiler has the characteristics: its main use as a producer of steam from unused hot steam. The results of these steams are used to run industrial processes.
How it works: steam produced by this boiler uses a type of water tube boiler or fire tube boiler, the resulting steam has a large pressure and capacity.
- Based on boiler construction:
The type of boiler package has characteristics: boiler assembly is carried out at the manufacturing plant, direct delivery in the form of a boiler.
Site Erected Boiler
The type of site erected boiler has the following characteristics: boiler assembly is carried out at the site where the boiler is to be built, deliveries are carried out per component.
D. How to operate a boiler
Standard Operating Procedures Boilers
- Introduction before heating
It is important to do a careful heating / control of all equipment in the boiler to ensure that everything is in a ready-made condition before heating:
- Check and make sure all valves in the boiler are closed
- Check all the visuals of all fans, such as casings, bearings, v-belts, retaining bolts and others
- Check the water level on the estimator glass, try the measuring glass, to ensure that the water level is about half the estimator glass
- Check the pressure gauge, functioning well / not
- Control the air compressor, and make sure the pressure is greater 8 barg
- Inspect the combustion chamber and make sure that the kitchen is clean and the fiber bar and stone walls are generally ready to use
- Check and make sure the blow down valve is in the closed position
- Check the feed water tank and fill if needed
- Alarm test for high water level and low water level (first and second level). This is done by pumping water to a high level then discarding it into the first and second levels, returning again the water level in the boiler by about half
- Heating (Increasing Steam) The
time required to warm up the boiler varies between types / type of boiler, if the boiler was turned off the night before, do things like the following:
- Insert the fiber and spread it evenly over the fire grate, then light the fire
- Turn on the Fan ID, FD Fan, and secondary Fan with the half open damper
- If you have a cooling system supporting the combustion chamber stem, open the water valve or run the circulation pump if available
- Heat the boiler gradually to increase the steam at work pressure, making sure that the water level in the estimator glass does not increase (controlled)
- Blow down the sidewall heater and make sure that the water level is maintained (don’t blow down the sidewall header when the boiler is operating>
Cat: Always remember that even slow firing will extend the life of your boiler and always provide longer heating times.
3. Connecting the Boiler to the main steam pipe (Main Steam Pipe)
When connecting the boiler to the main steam pipe, it should be used to protect the boiler, pipes and turbine steam from damage:
- Open all steam trap bypass valves on the main steam pipe and steam turbine lines
- Open the main stop valve boiler slightly to level the heating on the main steam pipe
- In steam blows freely out of the velve bypass flow, immediately close the velve bypass
- Leave the steam trap valve open and open the boiler main stop valve until it is fully open
- When you want to combine the second or third boiler in the main steam pipe, make sure that the boiler is at a pressure balanced to the boiler that was previously stable
- Bypass valve on main steam line and steam turbine is opened
- After a few minutes, open the boiler main stop valve slowly and immediately close the bypass velve
- Leave all velve steam traps in the open position
- The laying-off of steel tube adopts CNC 3D laser cutting machine.
- The manufacture of round coil tube adopts CNC coil tube automatic production line. Once-forming and no need for plastic .
Full argon arc welding
- The tube butt adopts argon arc welding technique and the seams will be done x ray real-time imaging, preventing unqualified seams from entering coil production line .
- Heater is wholly assembled before delivery, it is easy for installation, debugging and operating.
- Fully automatic operating, burning, liquid level of high level tank, outlet temperature and flow rate are adjusted automatically and self-protected.
- The inlet and outlet with end flanges and flanged cover structure facilitate the installation and layout of tubeline in boiler house.
Less fuel consumption
- Internal side adopts good insulation material, outside uses stainless steel plate, which can mostly reduce heat lost and make working environment better.
- Multilayers closely spaced tube bundle and steel rod is used to seal and fix, completely eradicating short circuit of flue gas.
- Before delivery, the residue moisture is removed completely, so the system draining period is reduced to 2 days from 12 days.
- The inner coil tube has bigger flow rate, so it is more stable under high temperature operation.
- Conical coil effectively protects the furnace wall at the end of heater and burner on the top.
Heavy Fuel Oil Marine Steam Boiler
Product thermal capacity: 4-35 t/h
Working pressure: 1.0-2.5 MPA
Outlet temperature: 184-350 ℃
Available fuel: natural gas, coke oven gas, bio-gas，liquid propane gas, diesel, heavy oil, light oil, crude oil
Available industries: Petroleum, chemical, chemical fiber, pharmaceutical, textile printing and dyeing, building materials, wood processing, vegetable oil processing and other industries.
Heavy Fuel Oil Marine Steam Boiler have a three-pass round coil structure. A conical coil is used for the effective protection of the furnace wall at the boiler end. This product is equipped with an advanced combustion device and is fully automated in operation. After the burner ignites the fuel, flame fills the round coil tubes and transfers heat by radiation through the tube wall (first pass). The high temperature flue gas gathers at the back door and then turns to the convection tubes section (second pass), where heat transfer takes place by convection. The flue gas gradually cools down here and flows to the front door, where it is reversed and goes into the third pass. After that, it enters into the chimney through the economizer and is released into the atmosphere.
Heavy Fuel Oil Marine Steam Boiler.This type of heater is delivered as a whole, and is installed on site, it only needs to connect thermal gas(oil) piping and electricity to start operation. The heater has four heating areas: furnace radiation heating area, the first convection tube bundle heating area, the second convection tube bundle heating area and economizer (waste heat boiler).
This MFO with a maximum sulfur content of 0.5 percent mass by mass (m / m) is one of the companies’ efforts to provide ship fuel in accordance with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) mandate of ship fuels with a maximum sulfur content of 0.5% wt. effective January 1, 2020.
The MFO will be released first from the Plaju Refinery of 7,000 Kiloliters (KL) via MT Medelin Expo to the STS Balikpapan supply point.
Pertamina Corporate Communication Vice President, Fajriyah Usman explained, RU RU Plaju will produce 180 cSt MFO of 380,000 KL per year or around 200 thousand barrels per month and can be distributed to Indonesian and non-Indonesian flagged vessels entering ports in the Water Territory Indonesia.
“Pertamina continues to pursue breakthroughs and product innovations to support the government’s program by distributing low sulfur fuel for ships sailing in national waters. And we make sure this fuel oil product complies with the international waters provisions set by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), “he said.
Fajriyah added, the supply of fuel was also in line with Minister of Transportation Regulation No. 29 of 2014 concerning prevention of maritime environmental pollution due to sulfur content in ship fuel.
“In addition to meeting national and international regulations, with a low production of 180 cSt Sulfur MFO, the Plaju refinery can provide the potential for increased margins in the operating unit,” he added.
“The application of this low MFO Sulfur fuel will also have an impact on controlling the fuel import figures, so it is expected to contribute to the stability of the rupiah’s value and save the country’s foreign exchange,” he said.
Through this program, Pertamina will continue to strive to guarantee the resilience of environmentally friendly fuel stocks on the market. Currently, the production of fuel for MFO Sulfur vessels is 180 cSt low
fulfilled 200 thousand barrels per month from Pertamina RU III Plaju and will be re-optimized to produce up to 300 thousand per month.